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CBSE NOTES CLASS 12 PHYSICS

CHAPTER 10 WAVE OPTICS

Newton’s corpuscular theory

Wave theory - nature of electromagnetic waves

Wave front

Huygens principle

Refraction of a plane wave from rarer to denser medium

Refraction of a plane wave from denser to rarer medium

Reflection of a plane wave by a plane surface

Behaviour of a plane wave front with different surfaces

The Doppler effect

Superposition principle

Coherent sources of light

Interference of light

Young’s double slit experiment

Fringe width in double slit experiment

Diffraction of light

Single slit experiment

Double slit vs single slit patterns

Interference vs diffraction due to single slit

Constraints for diffraction due to single slit

Viewing the diffraction pattern

Energy is conserved during interference and diffraction

When can we consider the light beam to be parallel beam in single slit experiment?

Resolving power of an objective lens

Fresnel distance

Polarisation

Polarisation by transmission

Polarisation by scattering

Polarisation by reflection - Brewster’s law

Law of Malus

Polaroid and uses of polaroids

CBSE NOTES CLASS 12 PHYSICS

CHAPTER 10 WAVE OPTICS

Behaviour of a plane wave front with different surfaces

Refraction through a prism: Since the speed of light waves is less in glass, the lower portion of the incoming wave front (which travels through the greatest thickness of glass) will get delayed resulting in a tilt in the emerging wave front.

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Refraction through a lens: In case of a plane wave incident on a thin convex lens; the central part of the incident plane wave traverses the thickest portion of the lens and is delayed the most. The emerging wave front has a depression at the centre and therefore the wave front becomes spherical and converges to the point F which is known as the focus.

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Reflection at a mirror: When a plane wave is incident on a concave mirror; on reflection we have a spherical wave converging to the focal point F.

In a similar manner, we can understand refraction and reflection by concave lenses and convex mirrors.

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