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CBSE NOTES CLASS 12 PHYSICS

CHAPTER 10 WAVE OPTICS

Newton’s corpuscular theory

Wave theory - nature of electromagnetic waves

Wave front

Huygens principle

Refraction of a plane wave from rarer to denser medium

Refraction of a plane wave from denser to rarer medium

Reflection of a plane wave by a plane surface

Behaviour of a plane wave front with different surfaces

The Doppler effect

Superposition principle

Coherent sources of light

Interference of light

Young’s double slit experiment

Fringe width in double slit experiment

Diffraction of light

Single slit experiment

Double slit vs single slit patterns

Interference vs diffraction due to single slit

Constraints for diffraction due to single slit

Viewing the diffraction pattern

Energy is conserved during interference and diffraction

When can we consider the light beam to be parallel beam in single slit experiment?

Resolving power of an objective lens

Fresnel distance

Polarisation

Polarisation by transmission

Polarisation by scattering

Polarisation by reflection - Brewster’s law

Law of Malus

Polaroid and uses of polaroids

CBSE NOTES CLASS 12 PHYSICS

CHAPTER 10 WAVE OPTICS

Polarisation

A light wave is an electromagnetic wave that travels through the vacuum of outer space. Light waves are produced by vibrating electric charges.

Ordinary light has electric vectors in all possible directions in a plane perpendicular to the direction of propagation of light. Hence it is called unpolarised light.

It can be considered a combination of vertical and horizontal components. Average of half its vibrations are in a horizontal plane and half of its vibrations are in a vertical plane.

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The phenomenon of restructuring of electric vectors of light into a single direction is called polarisation.

When ordinary light is passed through a tourmaline, calcite or quartz crystal the transmitted light has electric vectors in a particular direction parallel to the axis of crystal. This light is called plane polarised light.

http://www.physicsclassroom.com/Class/light/u12l1e2.gif

A plane containing the vibrations of polarised light is called plane of vibration.

A plane perpendicular to the plane of vibration is called plane of polarisation.

Polarisation can take place only in transverse waves.

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