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CBSE NOTES CLASS 12 PHYSICS

CHAPTER 10 WAVE OPTICS

Newton’s corpuscular theory

Wave theory - nature of electromagnetic waves

Wave front

Huygens principle

Refraction of a plane wave from rarer to denser medium

Refraction of a plane wave from denser to rarer medium

Reflection of a plane wave by a plane surface

Behaviour of a plane wave front with different surfaces

The Doppler effect

Superposition principle

Coherent sources of light

Interference of light

Young’s double slit experiment

Fringe width in double slit experiment

Diffraction of light

Single slit experiment

Double slit vs single slit patterns

Interference vs diffraction due to single slit

Constraints for diffraction due to single slit

Viewing the diffraction pattern

Energy is conserved during interference and diffraction

When can we consider the light beam to be parallel beam in single slit experiment?

Resolving power of an objective lens

Fresnel distance

Polarisation

Polarisation by transmission

Polarisation by scattering

Polarisation by reflection - Brewster’s law

Law of Malus

Polaroid and uses of polaroids

CBSE NOTES CLASS 12 PHYSICS

CHAPTER 10 WAVE OPTICS

Interference vs diffraction due to single slit

(i) The interference pattern has a number of equally spaced bright and dark bands. The diffraction pattern has a central bright maximum which is twice as wide as the other maxima. The intensity falls as we go to successive maxima away from the centre, on either side.

(ii) We calculate the interference pattern by superposing two waves originating from the two narrow slits. The diffraction pattern is a superposition of a continuous family of waves originating from each point on a single slit.

(iii) For a single slit of width a, the first null of the interference pattern occurs at an angle of λa. At the same angle of λa, we get a maximum (not a null) for two narrow slits separated by a distance ‘a’.

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