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CBSE NOTES CLASS 12 PHYSICS

CHAPTER 14 SEMICONDUCTORS

Types of substances on the basis of conductivity

Metals on the basis of conductivity

Semiconductors on the basis of conductivity

Insulators on the basis of conductivity

Energy bands in solids

Valence band

Conduction band

Forbidden band

Types of substances on the basis of energy bands

Metals on the basis of energy bands

Insulators on the basis of energy bands

Semiconductors on the basis of energy bands

Types of semiconductors

Elemental semiconductors

Compound semiconductors

Types of semiconductors based on purity

Intrinsic semiconductors

Effect of temperature on conductivity of semiconductors

Extrinsic semiconductor

n-type semiconductor

p-type semiconductor

Conductivity of extrinsic semiconductor

p-n junction

Diffusion of charge

Diffusion current

Depletion region

Drift of charge carriers

Drift current

Potential barrier across p-n junction

Semiconductor diode

Forward bias of p-n junction

Reverse bias of p-n junction

V-I characteristics of a diode

Threshold voltage or cut-in voltage

Dynamic resistance of diode

Application of junction diode as a rectifier

Half wave rectifier

Full-wave rectifier

Centre-tap transformer

Electric filter

Role of capacitor in the filter

Some special type of diodes

Zener diode

Zener diode as voltage regulator

Photodiode

Light emitting diodes (LED)

Photovoltaic devices (Solar cells)

Junction transistor

n-p-n transistor

p-n-p transistor

Transistor emitter

Transistor base

Transistor collector

Transistor in saturation region

Transistor in cut-off region

Transistor in active region

Basic transistor circuit configurations and transistor characteristics

Transistor in common base configuration

Transistor in common emitter configuration

Common emitter transistor characteristics

Input resistance of transistor

Output resistance of transistor

Current amplification factor

Transistor as a device

Transistor as a switch - base-biased CE configuration

Transistor as an amplifier

Amplification of dc voltage

Amplification of ac signal

Feedback amplifier

Transistor oscillator

Working of feedback amplifier

Tank circuit

Digital electronics

Analog signal

Digital signal

Logic gates

NOT gate

OR gate

AND gate

NAND gate

NOR gate

Integrated circuits

Linear or analogue ICs

Digital ICs

CBSE NOTES CLASS 12 PHYSICS

CHAPTER 14 SEMICONDUCTORS

Logic gates

A logic gate is a digital circuit that follows curtain logical relationship between the input and output voltages. They control the flow of information. The five common logic gates used are NOT, AND, OR, NAND, NOR. The logic gates can be realised using semiconductor devices.

A logic gate is an elementary building block of a digital circuit. Most logic gates have two inputs and one output. At any given moment, every terminal is in one of the two binary conditions low (0) or high (1), represented by different voltage levels.

Logic gates are used in calculators, digital watches, computers, robots, industrial control systems, and in telecommunications.

Each logic gate is indicated by a symbol and its function is defined by a truth table that shows all the possible input logic level combinations with their respective output logic levels.

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