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Types of substances on the basis of conductivity

Metals on the basis of conductivity

Semiconductors on the basis of conductivity

Insulators on the basis of conductivity

Energy bands in solids

Valence band

Conduction band

Forbidden band

Types of substances on the basis of energy bands

Metals on the basis of energy bands

Insulators on the basis of energy bands

Semiconductors on the basis of energy bands

Types of semiconductors

Elemental semiconductors

Compound semiconductors

Types of semiconductors based on purity

Intrinsic semiconductors

Effect of temperature on conductivity of semiconductors

Extrinsic semiconductor

n-type semiconductor

p-type semiconductor

Conductivity of extrinsic semiconductor

p-n junction

Diffusion of charge

Diffusion current

Depletion region

Drift of charge carriers

Drift current

Potential barrier across p-n junction

Semiconductor diode

Forward bias of p-n junction

Reverse bias of p-n junction

V-I characteristics of a diode

Threshold voltage or cut-in voltage

Dynamic resistance of diode

Application of junction diode as a rectifier

Half wave rectifier

Full-wave rectifier

Centre-tap transformer

Electric filter

Role of capacitor in the filter

Some special type of diodes

Zener diode

Zener diode as voltage regulator


Light emitting diodes (LED)

Photovoltaic devices (Solar cells)

Junction transistor

n-p-n transistor

p-n-p transistor

Transistor emitter

Transistor base

Transistor collector

Transistor in saturation region

Transistor in cut-off region

Transistor in active region

Basic transistor circuit configurations and transistor characteristics

Transistor in common base configuration

Transistor in common emitter configuration

Common emitter transistor characteristics

Input resistance of transistor

Output resistance of transistor

Current amplification factor

Transistor as a device

Transistor as a switch - base-biased CE configuration

Transistor as an amplifier

Amplification of dc voltage

Amplification of ac signal

Feedback amplifier

Transistor oscillator

Working of feedback amplifier

Tank circuit

Digital electronics

Analog signal

Digital signal

Logic gates

NOT gate

OR gate

AND gate

NAND gate

NOR gate

Integrated circuits

Linear or analogue ICs

Digital ICs



Transistor as a device

The transistor can be used as a device application depending on the configuration used (namely CB, CC and CE), the biasing of the E-B and B-C junction and the operation region namely cutoff, active region and saturation.

  1. Transistor as a switch - base-biased CE configuration


    Applying Kirchhoff’s voltage rule to the input and output sides of this circuit, we get,

    VBB = IBRB + VBE and VCE = VCC – ICRC.

    Let us assume VBB is a dc input voltage Vi, then VCE will also be a dc output voltage VO. Hence,

    Vi = IBRB + VBE

    and Vo = VCC – ICRC.

    For an Si transistor,

    • As long as input Vi is less than 0.6 V, the transistor will be in cut off state and current IC will be zero. Hence Vo = VCC

    • When Vi becomes greater than 0.6 V the transistor is in active state with some current IC in the output path. The output voltage Vo decreases as the term ICRC increases. Since, IC increases almost linearly as Vi increases, Vo decreases linearly till its value becomes less than about 1.0 V.

    • Beyond this, the change becomes non linear and transistor goes into saturation state. With further increase in Vi the output voltage is found to decrease further towards zero though it may never become zero. If we plot the Vo vs Vi curve, [also called the transfer characteristics of the base-biased transistor], we see that there are regions non-linearity between cut off state and active state and also between active state and saturation state. This shows that the transitions from cutoff state to active state and from active state to saturation state are not sharply defined.


    • As long as Vi is low and unable to forward-bias the transistor, Vo is high (at VCC). If Vi is high enough to drive the transistor into saturation, then Vo is low, very near to zero. When the transistor is not conducting it is said to be switched off and when it is driven into saturation it is said to be switched on.

    • We can define low and high states as below and above certain voltage levels corresponding to cutoff and saturation of the transistor. We see that a low input switches the transistor off and a high input switches it on. Alternatively, we can say that a low input to the transistor gives a high output and a high input gives a low output. The switching circuits are designed in such a way that the transistor does not remain in active state.