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CBSE NOTES CLASS 12 PHYSICS

CHAPTER 13 NUCLEUS

Subatomic particles

Nucleus

Nucleons

Atomic mass unit

Mass energy

Mass defect

Nuclear force

Nuclear binding energy

Binding energy per nucleon

Properties of binding force and binding energy

Relation of nuclear size and atomic mass number

Nuclear density

Isotopes

Isobars

Isotones

Isomers

Radioactivity

α-rays

β-rays

γ-rays

Law of radioactive decay

Rate of decay of nucleus

Half-life of a radioactive element

Average life or mean life of a radioactive element (τ)

Nuclear fission

Structure of nuclear reactor

Nuclear fuel

Moderator

Control rods

Coolant in nuclear reactor

Pressure vessel or pressure tubes in nuclear reactor

Steam generator in nuclear reactor

Nuclear fusion

The proton-proton (p, p) cycle in the sun

CBSE NOTES CLASS 12 PHYSICS

CHAPTER 13 NUCLEUS

Structure of nuclear reactor

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Nuclear fuel

Usually pellets of uranium oxide (UO2) are arranged in tubes to form fuel rods. The rods are arranged into fuel assemblies in the reactor core.

Moderator

Material in the core which slows down the neutrons released from fission so that they cause more fission. It is usually water, but may be heavy water or graphite.

Control rods

These are made with neutron-absorbing material such as cadmium, hafnium or boron, and are inserted or withdrawn from the core to control the rate of reaction, or to halt it

Coolant in nuclear reactor

This is a fluid circulating through the core so as to transfer the heat from it.  In light water reactors the water moderator functions also as primary coolant.

Pressure vessel or pressure tubes in nuclear reactor

Usually a robust steel vessel containing the reactor core and moderator/ coolant, but it may be a series of tubes holding the fuel and conveying the coolant through the surrounding moderator.

Steam generator in nuclear generator

This is the part of the cooling system of pressurised water reactors, where the high-pressure primary coolant bringing heat from the reactor is used to make steam for the turbine.

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